Hard-extracted reserves, unconventional hydrocarbon sources
Section editor – PhD in geology and mineralogy Yakutseni V.P.
Article # 51_2012
16 p.
pdf  Contribution to hydrocarbon occurrence in basement rocks*
*The article is presented in English.


Generally considered as non-productive, the basement hydrocarbons reservoirs were for long time neglected by the exploration activity, however as a matter of fact in various areas of the world basement rocks represent important oil and gas reservoir. Hydrocarbons may be accumulated in any igneous, metamorphic or cataclastic rocks with secondary porosity (tectonic porosity and /or dissolution porosity). Basement cataclasites – fault related rocks, produced by brittle deformation at elevated strain rates - can develop an important secondary porosity. Cataclasis can overprint various igneous rocks and metamorphite and may play an important role in the final (total) porosity of the basement. Following the acceptance of igneous and metamorphic rocks as hydrocarbons reservoirs in various petroliferous regions throughout the world, the cataclasites can be considered aptly too to draw the attention of the exploration activity.

Key words: hydrocarbons, reservoirs, basement reservoirs, igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, cataclasites, fault related rocks, brittle deformation, secondary porosity, exploration activity.
article citation Morariu D. Issledovanie skopleniy uglevodorodov v porodakh fundamenta [Contribution to hydrocarbon occurrence in basement rocks]. Neftegazovaya Geologiya. Teoriya I Praktika, 2012, vol. 7, no. 3, available at: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/9/51_2012.pdf
References

   Aguilera, R. 1980. Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, Pennwell, Tulsa, OK, USA.
   Brodie, K. Fettes, D. Harte, B. & Schmidt, R. 2007. Structural terms including fault rock term. Recommendations by the IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Metamorphic Rocks. Web version of 01.02.07. http://www.bgs.ac.uk/scmr/docs/papers/paper_3.pdf
   Grynberg, M.E., Papava, D., Shengelia, M., Takaishvili, A., Nanadze, A. & Patton, D.K. 1993. Petrophysical characteristics of the Middle Eocene laumontite tuff reservoir, Samgori Field, Republic of Georgia. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 16, pp 312-322.
   Higgins, M.W. 1971. Cataclastic rocks. Prof. Pap. U .S. geol. Surv., p 687.
   Katahira, T. & Ukai, M. 1976. Petroleum fields of Japan with volcanic-rock reservoir –summary. In: Halbouty, M.T., Maher, J.C.& Lian, H.M. (eds). Circum – Pacific Energy and mineral Resources. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoirs, 25, pp 276-279.
   Koning, T. & Darmono, F.X. 1984. The geology of the Beruk Northeast Field, Central Sumatra - oil production from pre-Tertiary basement rocks. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Convention, May 29-30, 1984. Jakarta, Indonesia. Indonesian Petroleum Association, pp 385-406.
   Koning, T. 2007. Remember Basement in your Oil and gas Exploration: Exemples of producing Basement Reservoirs in Indonesia, Venezuela and USA. CSPG CSEG Convention, pp 319-321.
   Levin, L.E., 1995. Volcanogenic and volcanoclastic reservoir rocks in Mezozoic-Cenozoic island arcs: examples from the Caucasus and the NW-Pacific. Journal of Petroleum Geology, vol. 18, pp. 267-288.
   Landes, K.K., Ammoruzo, J.J., Charlesworth, L.J., Heany, F. & Lesperance, P.J., 1960. Petroleum resources in basement rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin 44, pp 1682-1991.
   Milnes G.A. & Corfu F. 2011. Structural Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Sognefjord Transect, Caledonian Orogen, Southern Norway—A Field Trip Guide. GSA Field Guides, v. 19, pp 1-80.
   Narr, W., Schlechte, D.S. & Laird, B.T., 2006. Naturally Fractured Reservoir Characterization, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 115 pp.
   Nelson, R.A. 2001. Geologic analysis of naturally fractured reservoirs. Gulf Publishing Co.2nd. 332 pp.
   Norton, D. & Knapp, R. 1977. Transport phenomena in hydrothermal systems; the nature of porosity. American Journal of Science, 277, pp 937-981.
   P`an, C.-H. 1982. Petroleum in basement rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, 66, pp 1597-1643.
   Patton, D.K. 1993. Samgori Field, Republic of Georgia: critical review of island-arc oil and gas. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 16, pp 153-168.
   Petroleum Agency SA, 2000. South Africa – Petroleum exploration opportunities. 24 pp
   Petford, N. & McCaffrey K. (eds) 2003. Hydrocarbons in crystalline rocks: an introduction. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 214, pp 1-5.
   Sanders, C.A.E., Fullarton, L. & Calvert, S. 2003. Modelling fracture systems in extensional crystalline basement. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 214, pp 221-235.
   Sibson, R.H. 1977. Fault rocks and fault mechanism. Geological Society, London. 133, pp 191-213.
   Sircar, A. 2004. Hydrocarbon production from fractured basement formations. Current Science, vol 87, n 2, pp 147-151.
   Smith, J.E. 1956. Basement reservoir of La Paz-Mara oil field, Western Venezuela. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, 40, pp 380-385.
   Schutter, S.R. 2003. Hydrocarbon occurrence and exploration in and around igneous rocks. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 214, pp 7-33.
   Trinh, X.C. & Warren, J.K. 2009. Bach Ho Field a fractured granitic basement reservoir Cuu Long basin, Offshore SE Vietnam: A. Burried-hill play. Journal of Petroleum Geology, vol. 32. pp. 129-156.
   Uchida, T. 1992. Mode of occurrences of secondary porosities in volcanic rock reservoirs distributed along the west coast of the Northeastern Honshu Arc. International geological Congress, 29th, Abstracts with Programs, 19, n. 7, pp 876.
   Wang Yu-Hual, Zhang Ji-Guang & Zhang Hai-Jun. 2007. Reservoir characteristics and exploitation method of metamorphic rocks on Budate Group in Beier Rift of Hailaer Basin, Petroleum geology and oil field development in Doqing. 2007.02. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-DQSK200702006.htm
   Wise, D., Dunn, D., Engelder, J., Geiser, P., Hatcher, R., Kish, S., Odom, A. & Schamel, S. 1984. Fault related rocks : Suggestions for terminology. Geology, v.12, pp. 391-394.