Stratigraphy and lithology
Section editor – PhD in geology and mineralogy Kirichkova A.I.
Article # 2_2018 submitted on 12/21/2017 displayed on website on 02/01/2018
55 p.
pdf  Frasnien section on the Kozhym River (the western slope of Polar Urals) - results of biostratigraphic, bio- and lithofacies, isotopic and geochemical studies
The results of biostratigraphic, bio-, lithofacial and isotope-geochemical studies of a unique section of the Frasnien stage of the western slope of the Subpolar Urals are presented. The section contains a rich and diverse fauna of conodonts, on the basis of which a continuous sequence of standard conodontic zones is established from Early falsiovalis (Lower Frasnien) to Early triangularis (Lower Famennien). Dedicated associations of conodonts with the predominance of deepwater taxa Ancyrodella, Mesotaxis and Palmatolepis not only allowed detailed biostratigraphic subdivision of the section, but also served as indicators of sea level changes. The basin of sedimentation during the Frasnien time was a deep-water basin on the shelf with a carbonate-clay-siliceous type of sedimentation. Despite the predominantly deep-water conditions of sedimentation, relative sea level changes were reconstructed on the basis of the obtained bio- and lithofacies data, which are compared with regional and global fluctuations. Isotope-geochemical analysis showed a non-uniform distribution of б13C (from -3.1 to + 3.5‰) and б18O (from +19.6 to + 28.1‰) in the section, with numerous positive and negative excursions, which indicates repeated changes in the conditions of sedimentation. High values of б13C with sharp amplitudes of deviations are associated with manifestations of events caused by increased bioproductivity during transgressions. As a result of the carried out researches in the section of the western slope of the Subpolar Urals, traces of six Frasnien global geological events have been revealed: Genundewa, Timan, Middlesex, Semichatovae, Lower Kellwasser and Upper Kellwasser. Established biotic changes, accompanied by an increase in the taxonomic diversity of conodonts or a reduction to the point of complete extinction, sedimentological signs and anomalies of б13C and б18O are a consequence of the large transgressions that are associated with the manifestation of these global geological events

Keywords: isotope composition of carbon and oxygen, conodontic biofacies, global events, Frasnien sedimentation conditions, Kozhym River, Subpolar Urals.
article citation Soboleva M.A., Sobolev D.B., Matveeva N.A. Razrez franskogo yarusa na r. Kozhym (zapadnyy sklon Pripolyarnogo Urala) – rezul'taty biostratigraficheskikh, bio-, litofatsial'nykh i izotopno-geokhimicheskikh issledovaniy [Frasnien section on the Kozhym River (the western slope of Polar Urals) - results of biostratigraphic, bio- and lithofacies, isotopic and geochemical studies]. Neftegazovaya Geologiya. Teoriya I Praktika, 2018, vol. 13, no. 1, available at:
   Afanas'eva M.S., Amon E.O. Biostratigrafiya i paleobiogeografiya radiolyariy devona Rossii [Biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography Devonian radiolarians Russia]. Moscow: PIN RAN, 2012, 280 p.
   Barskov I.S. Konodonty v sovremennoy geologii [Conodonts in modern geology]. Obshchaya geologiya (Itogi nauki i tekhniki). Moscow: VINITI, 1985, vol. 19, p. 93–221.
   Becker, R.T. Anoxia, eustatic changes, and Upper Devonian to lowermost Cardoniferous global ammonoid diversity. Systematic Association Special. 1993. V. 47. P. 115–163.
   Becker, R.T. Frasnian goniatites from the Boulonnais (France) as indicators of regional sea level changes. Ann. soc. Geol. du Nord. 2002. V. 9. P. 129–140.
   Becker, R.T., House, M.R. Proposals for an international substage subdivision of the Frasnian. Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy. 1998. V. 15. P. 17–22.
   Becker, R.T., House, M.R. Sea-level changes in the Upper Devonian of the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. 1997. V. 199. P. 129–146.
   Belyaeva N.V., Petrenko E.L., Moskalenko K.A., Kuranova T.I. Pereryvy v pozdnedevonskom osadkonakoplenii Timano-Pechorskogo sedimentatsionnogo basseyna [Breaks in the Late Devonian sedimentation of Timan-Pechora sedimentary basin]. Geologiya devonskoy sistemy: materialy Mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma. Syktyvkar, 2002, p. 252–257.
   Botz R., Stoffers P., Faber E., Tietze K. Isotope geochemistry of carbonate sediments from Lake Kivu (East-Central Africa). Chem. Geol. 1988. V. 69. No. 3-4. Р. 299–308.
   Buggisch, W., Joachimski, M.M. Carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Devonian of Central and Southern Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2006, vol. 240, p. 68–88. DOI:
   Da Silva, A.-C., Yans, J., Boulvain, F. Early-middle Frasnian (early Late Devonian) sedimentology and magnetic susceptibility of the Ardennes area (Belgium): identification of severe and rapid sea-levelfluctuations. Geologica Belgica. 2010. V. 13. P. 319–332.
   Degens E.T. Raspredelenie ustoychivykh izotopov v karbonatakh [Distribution of stable isotopes in carbonates]. Karbonatnye porody: fiziko-khimicheskaya kharakteristika i metody issledovaniya. Moscow: Mir, 1971, vol. 2, p. 141-153.
   Denayer, J., Poty, E. Facies and palaeoecology of the Upper member of the Alsemont formation (Late Frasnian, S. Belgium): an unusual, episode within the Late Frasnian crisis. Geologica Belgica. 2010. V. 13/3. P. 197–212.
   Deulin Yu.V. Konodonty i korrelyatsiya produktivnykh na neft' verkhnedevonskikh otlozheniy Severa Timano-Pechorskoy provintsii [Conodonts and correlation of the Upper Devonian oil producing deposits, northern Timan-Pechora]. Arkhangel'sk: IPP «Pravda Severa», 2006, 253 p.
   Devleeschouwer, X., Herbosch, A., Preat, A. Microfacies, sequence stratigraphy and clay mineralogy of a condensed deep-water section around the Frasnian/Famennian boundary (Steinbruch Schmidt, Germany). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2002. V. 181. P. 171–193. DOI:
   Dmitrieva T.V., Eremenko N.M., Sokiran E.V. Litofatsial'nye i stratigraficheskie osobennosti domanikovo-turneyskogo neftegazonosnogo kompleksa kraevykh megaprogibov Timano-Pechorskoy plity [Lithofacial and stratigraphic features of the Dominik-Tournaisian petroleum bearing accumulation of marginal mega fore deep of the Timan-Pechora Plate]. Razvedka i okhrana nedr, 2014, no. 10, p. 27–30.
   Druce E.C. Upper Paleozoic and Triassic conodont distribution and the recognition of biofacies. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Pap. 1973. N. 141. P. 191–237.
   Dunham R.J. Classification of Carbonate Rocks according to Depositional Texture. Classification of carbonate rocks (ed. by W.E. Ham). Amer. Ass. Petrol. Geol. Mem. 1962. P. 108–121.
   For G. Osnovy izotopnoy geologii [Fundamentals of isotope geology]. Per. s angl. Moscow: Mir, 1989, 590 p.
   Galimov E.M. Geokhimiya stabil'nykh izotopov ugleroda [Geochemistry of stable carbon isotopes]. Moscow: Nedra, 1968, 226 p.
   Girard, C., Renaud, S. Quantitative conodont-based approaches for correlation of the Late Devonian Kellwasser anoxic events. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2007. V. 250. P. 114–125. DOI:
   Godderis, Y., Joachimski, M.M. Global change in the Late Devonian: modelling the Frasnian-Famennian short-term carbon isotope excursions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2004. V. 202. P 309–329. DOI:
   Gruzdev D.A., Soboleva M.A., Sobolev D.B., Zhuravlev A.V. Franskie otlozheniya na r. Bol'shaya Nadota (matyashorskaya tolshcha) – stratigrafiya i usloviya obrazovaniya [The Frasnien deposits on the river. Bolshaya Nadota (Matyashorskaya strata) - stratigraphy and conditions of sedimentation]. Litosfera, 2016, no. 6, p. 97–116.
   Holmden, C., Braun, W.K., Patterson, W.P., Eglington B.M., Prokopiuk T.C., Whittaker S. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of Frasnian Sequences in Western Canada. Saskatchewan Geol. Surv. Summ. Investig. 2006. V.1. P. 1–6.
   House, M.R., Kirchgasser, W.T. Devonian goniatite biostratigraphy and timing of facies movements in the Frasnian of eastern North America. High Resolution Stratigraphy. GeologicalSociety Special Publication. 1993. V.70. P. 267–292. DOI:
   House, M.R., Menner, V.V., Becker, R.T., Klapper, G., Ovnatanova, N.S., Kuzmin, V. Reef episodes, anoxia and sea-level changes in the Frasnian of the southern Timan (NE Russian Platform). Carbonate Platform Systems: Components and Interactions. 2000. V.178. P. 147–176. DOI:
   Jaffres J.B.D., Shields G.A., Wallmann K. The oxygen isotope evolution of sea water: A critical review of a long-standing controversy and an improved geological water cycle model for the past 3.4 billon years: Earth-Science Reviews. 2007. V. 83. P. 83–122. DOI:
   Joachimski, M.M., Buggisch, W. Conodont apatite ?18O signatures indicate climatic cooling as a trigger of the Late Devonian mass extinction. Geology. 2002. V. 30 (8). P. 711–714. DOI:<0711:CAOSIC>2.0.CO;2
   Joachimski, M.M., Pancost, R.D., Freeman, K.H., Ostertag-Henning, C., Buggisch, W. Carbon isotope geochemistry of the Frasnian-Famennian transition. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2002. V.181. P. 91–109. DOI:
   Johnson, J.G., Klapper, G., Sandberg, C.A. Devonian eustatic fluctuacion in Euramerica. Geol. Soc. of America. Bulletin. 1985. V. 96. P. 567–587. DOI:<567:DEFIE>2.0.CO;2
   Kasting J.F., Howard M.T., Wallmann K., Veizer J., Shields G., Jaffres J. Paleoclimates, ocean depth, and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2006. V. 252. P. 82–93. DOI:
   Keith M.L., Weber J.N. Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of selected limestones and fossils. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1964. V. 28. P. 1787–1816. DOI:
   Kirichkova A.I., Chizhova V.A., Stashkova E.K., Fortunatova N.K., Shurygin B.N. Stratigrafiya v neftyanoy geologii: metodologiya issledovaniy i aktual'nye problem [Oil geology stratigraphy: research methodology and current issues]. Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2007, vol. 2, available at:
   Kirilishina E.M., Kononova L.I. Konodontovye biofatsii vo franskom basseyne yugo-zapada Moskovskoy sineklizy [Conodont biofacies in Frasnien basin southwest of the Moscow syneclise]. Vestnik Mosk. Un-ta, 2004, no. 2, p. 32–40.
   Kirilishina E.M., Kononova L.I., Karpova E.V. Konodontovye biofatsii, karbonatnye mikrofatsii i paleobatimetricheskiy analiz verkhnefranskikh i nizhnefamenskikh otlozheniy Voronezhskoy anteklizy [Conodontic biofacies, carbonate microfacies and paleobathimetric analysis of Upper-Frasnien and Lower-Famennien section of Voronezh anteclise]. Verkhniy paleozoy Rossii: regional'naya stratigrafiya, paleontologiya, geo- i biosobytiya: materialy 3-go Vserossiyskogo soveshchaniya. St. Petersburg: VSEGEI, 2012, p. 110–113.
   Klapper, G. The Montagne Noire frasnian (Upper Devonian) conodont succession. Devonian of the world, volume III. Paleontology, paleoecology and biostratigraphy. Canada, 1988. Mem. 4. P. 449–478.
   Klapper, G., Feist, R., Becker, R.T., House, M.R. Definition of the Frasnian/Famennian Stage boundary. Episodes 16/4. 1993. P. 433–441.
   Kuleshov V.N. Evolyutsiya izotopnykh uglekislotno-vodnykh sistem v litogeneze. Soobshchenie 1. Sedimentogenez i diagenez [Evolution of isotope carbon dioxide-water systems in lithogenesis. Sedimentogenesis and diagenesis]. Litologiya i poleznye iskopaemye, 2001, no. 5, p. 491–508.
   Kuleshov V.N., Sedaeva, K.M. Geokhimiya izotopov (б13S, б18O) i usloviya obrazovaniya verkhnekazanskikh karbonatnykh otlozheniy Volgo-Vyatskogo mezhdurech'ya [The geochemistry of isotopes (б13С, б18О) and the conditions for the formation of the Upper-Kazanian carbonate deposits of the Volga-Vyatka interfluve]. Litologiya i poleznye iskopaemye, 2009, no. 5, p. 508–526.
   Ma, X.-P., Wang, C.-Y., Racki, G., Racka, M. Facies and geochemistry across the Early-Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian) on South China carbonate shelf: Comparison with the Polish reference succession. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2008. No. 269. P. 130–151. DOI:
   Matveeva M.A. Konodontovaya kharakteristika franskikh otlozheniy razreza r. Kozhym (Zapadnyy sklon Pripolyarnogo Urala) [Conodont characteristics of the Fransien deposits of the section Kozhym River (Western slope of the Subpolar Urals)]. Vestnik IG Komi NTs UrO RAN. 2013, no. 7, p. 17–22.
   Matveeva M.A. Zonal'noe raschlenenie franskikh otlozheniy razreza r. Kozhym (Pripolyarnyy Ural) [Zonal subdivision of the Frasnien deposits of the section Kozhym River (Subpolar Urals)]. Geologiya i mineral'nye resursy evropeyskogo severo-vostoka Rossii: materialy XVI Geologicheskogo s"ezda RK. Syktyvkar: Geoprint, 2014, vol. 2, p. 186–187.
   Morrow, J.R., Sandberg, C.A., Malkowski, K., Joachimski, M.M. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy and precise dating of middle Frasnian (lower Upper Devonian) Alamo Breccia, Nevada, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2009. V. 282. P. 105–118. DOI:
   Pershina A.I. Siluriyskie i devonskie otlozheniya gryady Chernysheva [Silurian and Devonian deposits of the Chernyshev ridge]. Leningrad: AN SSSR, 1962, 122 p.
   Petros'yants M.A., Ovnatanova N.S., Musina G.V. Mikrofossilii v geologicheskoy praktike: ikh rol' v opredelenii obstanovok drevnego osadkonakopleniya [Microfossils in geological practice: their role in determining the environments of paleosedimentation]. Obshchaya geologiya (Itogi nauki i tekhniki). 1990, vol. 27, 160 p.
   Pisarzowska, A. Geochemia stabilnych izotopow wegla i tlenu na pograniczu dolnego isrodkowego franu (dewon gorny) na obszarze poludniowego szelfu Laurussii. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, 2008. 122 p.
   Pisarzowska, A., Racki, G. Isotopic chemostratigraphy across the Early–Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian) on the South Polish carbonate shelf: A reference for the global punctata Event. Chemical Geology. 2012. P. 199–220. DOI:
   Pisarzowska, A., Sobstel, M., Racki, G. Conodont-based integrated event stratigraphy of the Early–Middle Frasnian transition on South Polish carbonate shelf. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 2006. V. 51. P. 609–646.
   Postanovleniya Mezhvedomstvennogo stratigraficheskogo komiteta Rossii i ego postoyannykh komissiy [Decisions of the Interdepartmental Stratigraphic Committee of Russia and its standing commissions]. Otv. redaktor A.I. Zhamoyda. St. Petersburg: VSEGEI, 2008, no. 38, 131 p.
   Prirodnye rezervuary neftegazonosnykh kompleksov Timano-Pechorskoy provintsii [Reservoirs of oil and gas bearing accumulations of the Timan-Pechora Province]. E.L. Teplov, P.K. Kostygova, Z.V. Larionova, I.Yu. Beda, E.G. Dovzhikova, T.I. Kuranova, N.I. Nikonov, E.L. Petrenko, G.A. Shabanova. Ministerstvo prirodnykh resursov i okhrany okruzhayushchey sredy Respubliki Komi, GUP RK TP NITs, St. Petersburg: OOO «Renome», 2011, 286 p.
   Puchkov V.N. Batial'nye kompleksy passivnykh okrain geosinklinal'nykh oblastey [Bathyal sequences of passive margins of geosynclinal regions]. Moscow: Nauka, 1979. - 260 p.
   Racki, G. Toward understanding Late Devonian global events: few answers, many questions. Understanding Late Devonian and Permian-Triassic Biotic and Climatic Events: towards an integrated approach. 2005. P. 5–16.
   Racki, G., Piechota, A., Bond, D., Wignall, P. Geochemical and ecological aspects of lower Frasnian pyrite-ammonoid level at Kostomloty (Holy Cross Mountains, Poland). Geological Quarterly. 2004. V. 48. P. 267–282.
   Racki, G., Racka, M., Matyja, H., Devleeschouwer, X. The Frasnian/Famennian boundary in the South Polish-Moravian shelf basins: integrated event-stratigraphical approach. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 2002. V. 181. P. 251–297. DOI:
   Sandberg, C.A., Morrow, J.R., Ziegler, W. Late Devonian sea-level changes, catastrophic events, and mass extinctions. Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions: Impacts and Beyond. Geological Society of America Special Paper. 2002. V. 356. P. 473–487.
   Sandberg, C.A., Ziegler, W., Dreesen, R., Butler, J.L. Late Frasnian mass extinction: conodont event stratigraphy, global changes, and possible causes. Contribution 1: Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. 1988. V. 102. P. 263–307.
   Savage N.M., Yudina A.B. Late Devonian (Frasnian) conodonts from the Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia. Journal of the Grech Geological society. 2001. 46/3-4. P. 287–298.
   Savage N.M., Yudina A.B. Late Devonian Syv’yu River Section, Timan-Pechora Basin, Northwestern Russia. Bollettino della societa Paleontologica Italiana. 1998. 37 (2-3). P. 361–373.
   Schidlowski M., Hayes J.M., Kaplan I.R. Isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries: Carbon, sulphur, hydrogen and nitrogen. In: Earth’s Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution. 1983. P. 149–186.
   Seddon G., Sweet W.C. An ecologic model for conodonts. Journal of Paleontology. 1971. N 45(5). P. 869–880.
   Shishkin M.A. Geologiya zony sochleneniya Eletskikh i lemvinskikh fatsiy na zapadnom sklone Polyarnogo Urala [Geology of the junction zone of Elets and Lemvin facies on the western slope of the Polar Urals]. Synopsis of the dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences. Syktyvkar, 2003, 20 p.
   Silaev V.I., Khazov A.F. Izotopnoe disproportsionirovanie karbonatnogo ugleroda v protsessakh gipergenno-ekzogennoy peregruppirovki veshchestva zemnoy kory [Isotope disproportionation of carbonate carbon in the processes of hypergenic-exogenous rearrangement of the crustal matter]. Syktyvkar: Geoprint, 2003, 41 p. (Programmy fundamental'nykh issledovaniy RAN. Otchetnaya seriya, N 3).
   Soboleva M.A. Bioraznoobrazie konodontov vo franskom veke (opornyy razrez r. Kozhym, Pripolyarnyy Ural) [Biodiversity of conodonts in the Frasnien stage (reference section on the Kozhym River, Subpolar Urals)]. Sovremennaya mikropaleontologiya: trudy XVI Vserossiyskogo mikropaleontologicheskogo soveshchaniya, 2015, p. 77–81.
   Soboleva M.A. Konodontovye biofatsii v razreze franskogo yarusa na r. Kozhym (Pripolyarnyy Ural) [Conodontic biofacies in the section of the Frasnien stage on the Kozhym River (Subpolar Urals)]. Struktura, veshchestvo, istoriya litosfery Timano-Severoural'skogo segmenta: materialy 25-y nauchnoy konferentsii, 2016a, p. 171–175.
   Soboleva M.A. Konodonty i biostratigrafiya franskogo yarusa Pripolyarnogo i Polyarnogo Urala [Conodonts and biostratigraphy of the Frasnien stage of the Subpolar and Polar Urals]. Avtoreferat diss. na soisk. uch. step. k. g.-m. n. Syktyvkar: Geoprint, 2016b, 23 p.
   Soboleva M.A. Rol' biofatsial'nogo analiza dlya ustanovleniya transgerssivno-regressivnykh tsiklov i global'nykh sobytiy (na primere razreza franskogo yarusa r. Kos'yu) [The role of biofacial analysis for the establishment of transgressive regressive cycles and global events (for example, the section of the Frasnien stage on the Kos'yu River)]. Struktura, veshchestvo, istoriya litosfery Timano-Severoural'skogo segmenta: materialy 26 nauchnoy konferentsii, 2017, p. 210–221.
   Sokiran E.V. Izotopno-geokhimicheskie osobennosti rakovin brakhiopod pozdnego devona Vostochno-Evropeyskoy platformy [Isotope-geochemical features of the brachiopod shells of the late Devonian of the East European Platform]. Vestnik Yaroslavskogo regional'nogo otdeleniya RAEN, 2009, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 57–61.
   Stratigraficheskie skhemy Urala (dokembriy, paleozoy): Ob"yasnitel'naya zapiska [Stratigraphic charts of the Urals (Precambrian, Paleozoic): Explanatory note]. Ekaterinburg: Mezhved. stratigr. komitet Rossii, 1993, 139 p.
   Tsyganko V.S. Devon zapadnogo sklona severa Urala i Pay-Khoya (stratigrafiya, printsipy raschleneniya, korrelyatsiya) [Devon of the western slope of the north of the Urals and Pai-Khoi (stratigraphy, principles of subdivision, correlation)]. Ekaterinburg: UrO RAN, 2011, 356 p.
   Tsyganko V.S., Pershina A.I., Yudina A.B. K stratigrafii devona gryady Chernysheva [The stratigraphy of the Devonian ridge Chernyshev]. Trudy IG Komi fil. AN SSSR, 1985, p. 17–26.
   Uilson Dzh.L. Karbonatnye fatsii v geologicheskoy istorii [Carbonate facies in geological history]. Per. s angl. Moscow: Nedra, 1980, 463 p.
   Walliser O.H. Global events in the Devonian and Carboniferous. Global events and event stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic. 1996. P. 225–250.
   Yans J., Corfield R.M., Racki G., Preat A. Evidence for a major perturbation of the carbon cycle in the Middle Frasnian punctata conodont Zone. Geological Magazine. 2007. V. 144. P. 263–270. DOI:
   Yudina A.B. Biostratigrafiya i konodonty verkhnego devona gryady Chernysheva i Pripolyarnogo Urala [Biostratigraphy and conodonts of the Upper Devonian ridge of Chernyshev and the Subpolar Urals]. Avtoreferat diss. k. g.-m. n. Syktyvkar, 1999, 18 p.
   Yudina A.B. Konodonty pogranichnykh otlozheniy franskogo i famenskogo yarusov gryady Chernysheva i Pripolyarnogo Urala. Syktyvkar [Conodonts of the boundary deposits of the Frasnien and Famennien stages of the chain Chernyshev and the Subpolar Urals]. Trudy IG Komi NTs UrO AN SSSR, 1989, p. 32–40.
   Yudina A.B., Racki G., Savage N.M., Racka M., Maіkowski K. The Frasnian–Famennian events in a deep-shelf succession, Subpolar Urals: biotic, depositional and geochemical records. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 2002. V. 47(2). P. 355–372.
   Yudovich Ya.E., Ketris M.P. Sootnosheniya izotopov ugleroda v stratisfere i biosfere: chetyre stsenariya [Correlation of carbon isotopes in the stratosphere and biosphere: four scenarios]. Biosfera, 2010, vol. 2, p. 231–246.
   Zherlygin A.L. Palinspasticheskaya osnova rekonstruktsiy paleogeografii devona na Severo-Vostoke Pechorskogo basseyna [Palinspastic reconstruction of Devonian paleogeography in the North-East of the Pechora basin]. Zapiski Gornogo instituta, 2013, vol. 200, p. 210–215.
   Zhuravlev A.V., Sokiran E.V., Evdokimova I.O., Dorofeeva L.A., Rusetskaya G.A., Malkowski R. Fauna and changes at the Early–Middle Frasnian boundary in the North–West of the East European Platform. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 2006. No. 51 (4). P. 747–758.
   Ziegler W. Taxionomie und Phylogenie oberdevonischer Conodonten und ihre stratigraphische Bebeutung. Abh. Hess. L.-Amt Bodenf. 1962. No. 38. 166 p.
   Ziegler W., Sandberg C.A. Palmatolepis-based revision of upper part of standard Late Devonian conodont zonation. Geol. Soc. America. 1984. No. 196. P. 179–194.
   Ziegler W., Sandberg C.A. The Late Devonian Standard Conodont Zonation. Cour. Forsch. -Inst. Senckenberg. 1990. No. 121. 115 p.